Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) plays a critical role in osteoclastogenesis, an essential process for the initiation of bone remodeling to maintain healthy bone mass and structure. Although the signaling and function of RANK have been investigated extensively, much less is known about the negative regulatory mechanisms of its signaling. We demonstrate in this paper that RANK trafficking, signaling, and function are regulated by VPS35, a major component of the retromer essential for selective endosome to Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. VPS35 loss of function altered RANK ligand (RANKL)-induced RANK distribution, enhanced RANKL sensitivity, sustained RANKL signaling, and increased hyperrresorptive osteoclast (OC) formation. Hemizygous deletion of the Vps35 gene in mice promoted hyperresorptive osteoclastogenesis, decreased bone formation, and caused a subsequent osteoporotic deficit, including decreased trabecular bone volumes and reduced trabe- cular thickness and density in long bones. These results indicate that VPS35 critically deregulates RANK signaling, thus restraining increased formation of hyperresorptive OCs and preventing osteoporotic deficits. © 2013 Xia et al.