Background: It has recently been suggested that the use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of thyroid nodules in male patients is associated with an unacceptably high false-negative rate in the detection of thyroid malignancy. We hypothesize that FNA biopsy is an accurate preoperative tool for detecting thyroid cancer in men, and that false negative rates are significantly lower than recently reported. Materials and Methods: A retrospective database analysis was performed on all male patients who underwent thyroid surgery from May 1994 through January 2007 at a single institution. The results of preoperative FNA biopsies were compared with final surgical pathologic results. FNA biopsy results were reported as benign, malignant, inconclusive (i.e., follicular neoplasm), or nondiagnostic; final surgical pathology was reported as benign or malignant. Results: Of 1205 patients who underwent thyroidectomy, 273 (23%) were male. Preoperative FNA biopsy results were obtained in 60% of these male patients and were read as benign in 45/165 (27%) patients, malignant in 47/165 (28%) patients, inconclusive in 66/165 (40%) patients, and nondiagnostic in 7/165 (4%) patients. In male patients with cytology reported as benign, 3/45 (6.7%) FNAs were determined to be malignant on final pathology. Conclusions: Our study determined that FNA biopsy of thyroid nodules in male patients has an acceptably low false-negative rate of 6.7% and is, therefore, an accurate and useful diagnostic tool. We recommend preoperative FNA biopsy for all male patients presenting with thyroid nodules as a standard of practice. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.