Introduction The incidence of recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) had been reported to be between 1% and 10%. The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with multigland disease have a different recurrence rate. Methodology A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was performed on patients with PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy at one institution between 2001 and 2013. Patients who underwent initial parathyroidectomy with at least 6 mo of follow-up were included and were divided into three groups according to operative notes: single adenoma (SA), double adenoma (DA), and hyperplasia (HP). An elevated postoperative serum calcium level within 6 mo of surgery was defined as a persistent disease, whereas an elevated calcium after 6 mo was defined as a recurrence. Results In total, 1402 patients met inclusion criteria, and the success rate of parathyroidectomy was 98.4%. The mean age was 60 ± 14 y and 78.5% were female. Among them, 1097 patients (78%) had SA, 124 patients (9%) had DA, and 181 patients had HP (13%). The rate of persistent PHPT was higher among patients with DA (4%) versus SA (1.3%) and HP (2.2%) (P = 0.0049). Moreover, the recurrence rate was higher among patients with DA (7.3%) versus SA (1.7%) and HP (4.4%) (P = 0.0005) with identical median follow-up time. The median of the follow-up was 11 mo for patients with SA, 12.5 for patients with DA, and 12 for patients with HP (P = 0.1603). Conclusions Recurrent and persistent PHPT occur more frequently in patients with DA. These data suggest that DA in some cases could represent asymmetric or asynchronous hyperplasia. Therefore, patients with DA may warrant more rigorous intraoperative scrutiny and more vigilant monitoring after parathyroidectomy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.