Endurance exercise training decreases triglyceride levels and increases HDL-C levels, whereas LDL-C levels are not substantially changed. Preliminary data indicate that exercise induces favorable quantitative changes in lipoproteins as well. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance tend to improve. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures decrease with exercise training, and blood pressure during submaximal exercise is also lowered after endurance training in hypertensive individuals. Preliminary data indicate that levels of coagulation factors and other hematologic indices are favorably altered by regular physical exercise. These training adaptations that reduce known risk factors are generally maintained only with continued physical activity and dissipate with lack of exercise. Exercise training alone does not improve smoking behavior.