Background - Numerous studies have shown that women undergoing coronary revascularization procedures do so at a higher risk for an adverse outcome compared with men. However, the impact of advances in technology and improvements in techniques on in-hospital and long-term outcome after revascularization in women is unclear. Methods and Results - We evaluated 1829 patients with symptomatic multivessel coronary disease randomized to CABG or PTCA in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI), of whom 27% were women. As expected, women were older (64.0 versus 60.5 years), with more congestive heart failure (14% versus 7%), hypertension (68% versus 42%), treated diabetes mellitus (31% versus 15%), and unstable angina (67% versus 61%) than men but had similar preservation of left ventricular function and extent of multivessel disease. Women assigned to surgery received the same number of total grafts but fewer internal mammary artery grafts (72% versus 85%, P<0.01), and those assigned to angioplasty had more intended lesions (76% versus 71%, P<0.01) successfully dilated than men. At an average of 5.4 years' follow-up, crude mortality rates were similar in women (12.8%) and men (12.0%). The Cox regression model adjusting for baseline differences revealed that women had a significantly lower risk of death (relative risk, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.84; P=0.003) but not a significantly lower risk of death plus myocardial infarction (relative risk, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.07; P=0.16) than men. Conclusions - Although the unadjusted mortality rate suggests that women and men undergoing CABG and PTCA have a similar 5-year mortality, women have higher risk profiles; consequently, contrary to previous reports, female sex is an independent predictor of improved 5-year survival after we control for multiple risk factors.