© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant disorder of hematopoiesis resulting from the clonal expansion of a primitive hematopoietic cell. As with all treatments of CML, outcomes are far superior for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients in chronic phase compared to advanced phase disease. Earlier, allogeneic transplantation of CML was a profound success, particularly in chronic phase. Reduced-intensity or non-ablative transplant approaches have also been developed in an attempt to avoid the toxicities of high-dose preparative regimens while retaining the potentially powerful graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. The salient points of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy include: primary therapy for CP is highly effective, and can produce a complete cytogenetic remission (CCyR) in 80% of the cases; and for patients receiving secondary therapy for resistant disease, approximately 50% will achieve a CCyR.