We prospectively studied immune reconstitution in 102 children who underwent T-lymphocyte depleted bone marrow transplants using either closely matched unrelated donors or partially matched familial donors by assaying total lymphocyte counts (TLC}, T-cell subsets, B cells, and natural killer cells. TLC, CD3+, and CD4+ T-cell counts remained depressed until 2 to 3 years posttransplant, whereas CD8+ T-cell counts normalized by 18 months, resulting in an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio until 12 months posttransplant. Although the percentage of NK cells was elevated early posttransplant, their absolute numbers remained normal. CD20 + B cells were depressed until 12 to 18 months posttransplant. Factors affecting immunophenotypic recovery were analyzed by non-parametric statistics. Younger patients tended to have higher TLC posttransplant. Higher marrow cell doses were not associated with hastened immunophenotypic recovery. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and/or its treatment significantly delayed the immune reconstitution of CD3 + , CD4+, and CD20+ cells. The presence of cytomegalovirus was associated with increased CD8+ counts and a decrease in the percentages of CD4 + and CD20+ cells.