Renal vascular responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and norepinephrine (NE) are reported to involve both mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores and activation of calcium influx pathways. The present study was conducted to determine the contribution of calcium release from intracellular stores to afferent and efferent arteriolar responses to Ang II and NE. Experiments were performed in vitro rising the blood perfused, juxtamedullary nephron technique combined with videomicroscopy. The responses of afferent and efferent arterioles to Ang II and NE were determined before and after depletion of intracellular calcium pools with 1 μmol/L thapsigargin. Positive control responses were obtained with 55 mmol/L KCl. Ang II concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10 nmol/L decreased afferent arteriolar diameter by 10±4%, 17±4%, and 29±69%, respectively (P<.05; n=8). NE also decreased afferent diameter by 5±1%, 13±1%, and 57±9% at concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 nmol/L, respectively (P<.05; n=6). Thapsigargin treatment shifted the afferent arteriolar concentration response curves for both Ang II and NE significantly to the right. Nevertheless, KCl evoked a pronounced vasoconstriction and decreased afferent diameter by 56±7% (P<.05; n=6). Postglomerular responses to Ang II and NE were abolished by thapsigargin. During the control period, efferent diameter decreased by 3±1%, 7±2%, and 14±4% for the three Ang II concentrations and 3±1%, 5±1%, and 15±4% in response to the three NE concentrations, respectively. These responses were completely eliminated in the presence of thapsigargin, whereas KCl evoked an efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction of 57±9% (P<.05). These data demonstrate that agonist-induced calcium release from intracellular stores represents an essential component in the afferent and efferent arteriolar response to Ang II and NE. Furthermore, they suggest that efferent arteriolar responses to these agents may rely more heavily on calcium release from this store, whereas afferent responses may include activation of other pathways.