© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Endothelin (ET) is one of the most potent renal vasoconstrictors. Endothelin plays an essential role in the regulation of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, sodium and water transport, and acid-base balance. ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 are the three distinct endothelin isoforms comprising the endothelin family. ET-1 is the major physiologically relevant peptide and exerts its biological activity through two G-protein-coupled receptors: ETA and ETB. Both ETA and ETB are expressed by the renal vasculature. Although ETA are expressed mainly by vascular smooth muscle cells, ETB are expressed by both renal endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of the endothelin system, or overexpression of downstream endothelin signaling pathways, has been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions including hypertension, acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and immune nephritis. In this review, we focus on the effects of endothelin on the renal microvasculature, and update recent findings on endothelin in the regulation of renal hemodynamics.