The Women's Health Trial:Feasibility Study in Minority Populations (WHT:FSMP) examined the feasibility of recruiting postmenopausal women from a broad range of racial and socioeconomic backgrounds into a primary prevention trial requiring marked reductions in dietary fat. Postmenopausal women aged 50-79 yr who had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer and who consumed 36% or more total energy from fat qualified to participate. We randomized the women into dietary intervention (60%) or control (40%) groups; we aimed to randomize 750 women in 18 months in each of the three clinical centers. All centers achieved goals for randomization based on ethnicity, and two centers exceeded overall recruitment goals. The greatest source of randomized participants was mass mailing, followed by items in the media, referrals, and community outreach. Recruitment yields were generally similar for the ethnic groups but lower for less-educated participants. The experience of WHT:FSMP indicates that postmenopausal women from the African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white communities can be recruited into dietary intervention studies for the prevention of disease. Controlled Clinical Trials 1998;19:461-476. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.