Implementation research is a new scientific discipline emerging from the recognition that the public does not derive sufficient or rapid benefit from advances in the health sciences. One often-quoted estimate claims that it takes an average of 17 years for even well-established clinical knowledge to be fully adopted into routine practice. In this chapter, we will discuss particular barriers to evidence implementation, present tools for implementation research, and provide a framework for designing implementation research studies, emphasizing the randomized trial. The reader is advised that this chapter only provides a basic introduction to several concepts for which new approaches are rapidly emerging. Therefore, our goal is to stimulate interest and promote additional in-depth learning for those who wish to develop new implementation research projects or better understand this exciting field. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.