© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Taurine is present in the brain, where it appears to be involved in many functions from conception onward. It plays a role in neurotransmission, although the brain does not appear to have a specific taurine receptor. Studies of synthesis and distribution show that taurine is present in the brain of the early embryo and is differentially distributed. During the embryonic and early postnatal life, taurine appears to act as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter/modulator in the brain, having much higher concentrations than GABA in most areas. During the postnatal period, GABA gains dominance along with glycine as central inhibitory transmitters. Because de novo synthesis of taurine is relatively low in the brain, exogenous taurine is needed for appropriate development and adult functions of the brain. For instance, perinatal taurine depletion alters learning, memory, and neural control of blood pressure in adult life, whereas taurine supplementation prevents or improves some neurological disorders.