The recent upsurge in proteomics research has been facilitated largely by streamlining of two-dimensional (2-D) gel technology and the parallel development of facile mass spectrometry for analysis of peptides and proteins. However, application of these technologies to the mitochondrial proteome has been limited due to the considerable complement of hydrophobic membrane proteins in mitochondria, which precipitate during first dimension isoelectric focusing of standard 2-D gels. In addition, functional information regarding protein:protein interactions is lost during 2-D gel separation due to denaturing conditions in both gel dimensions. To resolve these issues, 2-D blue-native gel electrophoresis was applied to the mitochondrial proteome. In this technique, membrane protein complexes such as those of the respiratory chain are solubilized and resolved in native form in the first dimension. A second dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel then denatures the complexes and resolves them into their component subunits. Refinements to this technique have yielded the levels of throughput and reproducibility required for proteomics. By coupling to tryptic peptide fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, a partial mitochondrial proteome map has been assembled. Applications of this functional mitochondrial proteomics method are discussed.