Objectives: We have recently found a high prevalence of non-typeable pneumococcal isolates (NTPn) circulating in day-care centers in Central Brazil, besides serotype 14 isolates. We therefore examined the genetic relationship among NTPn and serotype 14 from carriage and invasive pneumococcal isolates obtained from children attending emergency rooms enrolled in a population-based surveillance. Methods: The isolates were characterized by Quellung reaction serotyping, PCR for the presence of pneumolysin and the loci for a capsule gene (cpsA) and the type 14 gene (cps14H) in all NTPn, and by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: 87.2% of the isolates were clustered into nine clusters. The major cluster included 41 pneumococcal serotype 14 (28 carriage and 13 invasive isolates) and two NTPn related to the global pneumococcal clone Spain 9V -3. Overall, 95.4% of the NTPn carriage strains were genetically related to carriage or invasive strains expressing serotype 14. A dominant NTPn lineage was found, that grouped 14 pneumococcal strains. Almost half of the multidrug-resistant isolates grouped into the NTPn cluster. Conclusion: These findings provide baseline data to assess the impact of the pneumococcal vaccination on the molecular epidemiology of . Streptococcus pneumoniae. Changes in frequency of NTPn isolates and also genetic changes should be carefully monitored post vaccination, to detect potential vaccine-escape or replacement disease by capsule switched strains, especially in areas where colonization with NTPn has been frequently observed. © 2010 The British Infection Society.