Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) was measured following reduced infant doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) with or without 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) at 12 months, and subsequent re-exposure to a small dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (mPPS) at 17 months. Fijian infants were randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 PCV-7 doses. Half received PPV-23 at 12 months and all received mPPS at 17 months. OPA was performed on up to 14 serotypes. Three and 2 PCV-7 doses resulted in similar OPA for most PCV-7 serotypes up to 9 months and for half of the serotypes at 12 months. A single dose improved OPA compared with the unvaccinated group. PPV-23 significantly improved OPA for all serotypes tested but in general, was associated with diminished responses following re-challenge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.