Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 10 includes four cross-reactive capsular polysaccharide (CPS) serotypes (10F, 10A, 10B, and 10C). In the present study, the structures of CPS10B and CPS10C were determined by chemical and high resolution NMR methods to define the features of each serotype. Both CPS10C and CPS10F had β1-6-linked Galf branches formed from the termini of linear repeating units by wzy-dependent polymerization through the 4-OH of subterminal GalNAc. The only difference between these polysaccharides was the wcrC-dependent α1-2 or wcrF-dependent α1-4 linkages between Gal and ribitol-5-phosphate. The presence of one linkage or the other also distinguished the repeating units of CPS10B and CPS10A. However, whereas these polysaccharides both had β1-3-linked Galf branches linked to GalNAc, only CPS10A had additional β1-6-linked Galp branches. These Galp branches and the reaction of a CPS10A-specific monoclonal antibody were eliminated by deletion of wcrG from the cps10A locus. In contrast, deletion of this gene from the cps10B locus had no effect on the structure of CPS10B, thereby identifying wcrG as a pseudogene in this serotype. The β1-3-linked Galf branches of CPS10A and CPS10B were eliminated by deletion of wcrD from each corresponding cps locus. Deletion of this gene also eliminated wcrG-dependent β1-6-linked Galp branches from CPS10A, thereby identifying WcrG as a branching enzyme that acts on the product of WcrD. These findings provide a complete view of the molecular, structural, and antigenic features of CPS serogroup 10, as well as insight into the possible emergence of new serotypes.