A survey of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin nonsusceptible pneumococcal (PNSp) isolates was conducted among 1192 children attending 62 day care centers in Brazil, where pneumococcal vaccination has not been routinely introduced. Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage was detected in 686 (57.6%) infants, and 178 (25.9%) of them carried PNSp isolates. Being less than 24 months of age, hospitalization in the previous 3 months, and recurrent acute otitis media were independently associated with PNSp. Serotypes 14, 23F, 19A, 6A, 6B and 19F were the most common serotype isolated accounting for 80% of the PNSp. A high proportion (35/332) of non-(sero)typeable isolates was detected, 62.9% of them PNSp. Serotypes coverage projected for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13-valent vaccine (72%) was significantly higher compared with PCV7 (58.4%) and PCV 10-valent vaccine (59.3%). © 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.