Serotype-specific protective immunity in pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has not been fully investigated. To determine the protective immunity to the infecting serotype, the serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and opsonization indices (OIs) were examined in 24 Japanese pediatric patients whose serum was collected within one month of an IPD episode between May 2008 and June 2011. The median age (range) of IPD patients was 17 (10-108) months and 63% were boys. In all 17 patients tested, the levels of serotype-specific IgG to the infecting serotype were higher than 0.2 μg/ml, but the OIs to the infecting serotype were <8. The avidities of 19F- or 6B-specific IgG in patients with levels higher than 5.0 μg/ml, but with undetectable OIs, were confirmed to be lower than those in patients with high OIs. Our data demonstrated that although the levels of serotype-specific IgG to the infecting serotype were higher than 0.2 μg/ml in sera of pediatric patients with IPD, the OIs were low one month after the IPD episode. Low opsonic activities in these patients may, in part, be explained by the low avidity of serotype-specific IgG. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.