Objective: To test hypothesized relations between hope and self-efficacy for rehabilitation to depression and functional ability reported by individuals receiving joint replacement surgery. Study Design: Community-dwelling older adults (N = 100) from an orthopaedic clinic were administered measures of hope, self-efficacy for rehabilitation, pain, depression, body mass index (BDI), and mental status 1 month prior to their joint replacement surgery. These measures were completed by 62 participants 6 weeks after surgery. Demographic, health information, and functional outcome measures were obtained by medical personnel pre- and postsurgery. Main Outcome Measures: Functional outcome measures (Harris Hip and Knee Society Scores) and depressive symptomatology. Results: Hope was significantly predictive of presurgery depression, but it was not predictive of depression or functional ability after surgery. Higher levels of self-efficacy were predictive of lower postsurgery depression scores. Conclusions: Results imply that social-cognitive constructs may have utility in the prediction of emotional adjustment before and after joint surgery, but they may have limited value in anticipating functional abilities following these surgeries. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. © 2008 American Psychological Association.