Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission are thought to be involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter type 1 (ENT1) regulates glutamate levels by regulating excitatory amino acid transporter expression and activity in the brain. In this study, we investigated whether ENT1 is abnormally expressed in the brain of elderly patients with schizophrenia. We measured protein expression of ENT1 in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in patients with schizophrenia (STG, n=22; ACC, n=34) and a comparison group (STG, n=24; ACC, n=29). We found decreased ENT1 expression in the STG in patients with schizophrenia, supporting the hypothesis of altered glutamate transport in this illness. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.