Cryptococcus neoformans may infect persons with intact or compromised host defenses. Clinical manifestations generally correlate directly with the degree of immunosuppression. Treatment is prescribed on the basis of the severity of disease and the degree of immunosuppression. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common clinical form of cryptococcal infection and the most amenable to study in clinical trials. The current standard of care for cryptococcal meningitis is therapy with amphotericin B. Despite clinical improvement and microbiological suppression of the organism at the completion of therapy, the microbiological outcome will be identified as presumptive persistence if treatment is continued. Patients should be observed for 1 year after completion of therapy before a final assessment is made. © 1992 Oxford University Press.