Originally conceived and applied for the treatment of inherited monogenetic defects such as adenosine deaminase deficiency and cystic fibrosis, gene therapy was later applied to the treatment of cancer. Such a genetic strategy seemed rational given the recognition that cancer typically develops in a multistep process involving alterations of a number of different genes as demonstrated in familial polyposis and colorectal cancer through the work of Volgelstein et al. Because of the numerous alterations that may result in the eventual development of cancer, there is no obvious single choice for a therapeutic gene. Although one may view this as an obstacle, it also allows for a variety of possible therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the known genetic defects that occur in ovarian cancer, the gene therapy strategies suggested by such defects, and the approaches under current development for the treatment of this disease. As such, this work also describes some of the approved human gene therapy protocols. Finally, an overview of the problems directions for future growth and research is presented.