Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, affecting 35 million people today. The search for new treatments is made ever more urgent by prospects for increasing prevalence due to population aging. Mouse models are one of the most important research tools for finding new treatments for AD. Here, we review those models. We begin by briefly reviewing the AD genetics on which mouse models are based and then consider the most common mouse models of AD, including mice transgenic for human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) and beta-amyloid (Aβ), mice expressing mutant presenilin genes, mice modeling tau's role in AD, and apolipoprotein E models. The discussion highlights key features and important differences between these mouse models. We conclude with a discussion about the role of AD mouse models in the translational pipeline. © 2011.