The intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery required to build functional cilia consists of a multisubunit complex whose molecular composition, organization, and function are poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel tryptophan-aspartic acid (WD) repeat (WDR) containing IFT protein from Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-2, that plays a critical role in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the IFT machinery. We determined the identity of the dyf-2 gene by transgenic rescue of mutant phenotypes and by sequencing of mutant alleles. Loss of DYF-2 function selectively affects the assembly and motility of different IFT components and leads to defects in cilia structure and chemosensation in the nematode. Based on these observations, and the analysis of DYF-2 movement in a Bardet-Biedl syndrome mutant with partially disrupted IFT particles, we conclude that DYF-2 can associate with IFT particle complex B. At the same time, mutations in dyf-2 can interfere with the function of complex A components, suggesting an important role of this protein in the assembly of the IFT particle as a whole. Importantly, the mouse orthologue of DYF-2, WDR19, also localizes to cilia, pointing to an important evolutionarily conserved role for this WDR protein in cilia development and function. © 2006 by The American Society for Cell Biology.