The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response to the stress that is caused by an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is an important component of cellular homeostasis. During ER stress, the UPR increases the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum to relieve the stress. Failure to recover leads to apoptosis. Specific cellular mechanisms are required for the cellular recovery phase after UPR activation. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a number of microRNAs that are predicted to decrease the mRNA expression levels for a number of critical components of the UPR. In this review, we discuss the potential role of microRNAs as key regulators of this pathway and describe how microRNAs may play an essential role in turning off the UPR after the stress has subsided. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.