Increased lymphocytic infiltration of intestinal tissues has been observed in patients infected with HIV-1 and in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine whether HIV-1 and SIV infectious influence the homing of human and nonhuman primate PBMC to intestinal tissues, we engrafted SCID mice with human or nonhuman primate PBMC and infected them with either cell-free or cell-associated HIV-1 or SIV. In mice that received both PBMC and virus, human or nonhuman primate CD2+ T cells were found in intestinal tissues, primarily in the intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment and lamina propria. Immunomagnetic sorting revealed that these cells were derived from the CD4+ population. Using gag-specific primers, PCR analysis of these tissues detected the presence of HIV-1 proviral DNA. However, in SCID mice that were engrafted with either human or nonhuman primate PBMC and no HIV-1 or SIV, CD2+ T cells were not detected in intestinal tissues. These results indicate that HIV-1 and SIV can modulate the migratory properties of human and nonhuman primate T cells in the SCID mouse model.