The study of whole patterns of changes in protein expression and their modifications, or proteomics, presents both technological advances as well as formidable challenges to biological researchers. Nutrition research and the food sciences in general will be strongly influenced by the new knowledge generated by the proteomics approach. This review examines the different aspects of proteomics technologies, while emphasizing the value of consideration of "traditional" aspects of protein separation. These include the choice of the cell, the subcellular fraction, and the isolation and purification of the relevant protein fraction (if known) by protein chromatographic procedures. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of proteins and their peptides formed by proteolytic hydrolysis have been substantially enhanced by the development of mass spectrometry technologies in combination with nanoscale fluidics analysis. These are described, as are the pros and cons of each method in current use.