Dietary supplements such as grape seed extract (GSE) enriched in proanthocyanidins (PA) (oligomeric polyphenols) have been suggested to have multiple health benefits, due to antioxidant and other beneficial activities of the PA. However, a systematic analysis of the molecular basis of these benefits has not been demonstrated. Because the brain is vulnerable to age-related oxidative damage and other insults including inflammation, it was hypothesized that rats ingesting GSE would experience changes in expression or modifications of specific brain proteins that might protect against pathologic events. Normal adult female rats were fed diets supplemented with 5% GSE for 6 weeks. Proteomics analysis (2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of brain homogenates from these animals identified 13 proteins that were altered in amount and/or charge. Because many of these changes were quantitatively in the opposite direction from previous findings for the same proteins in either Alzheimer disease or mouse models of neurodegeneration, the data suggest that these identified proteins may mediate the neuroprotective actions of GSE. This is the first identification and quantitation of specific proteins in mammalian tissues modulated by a dietary supplement, as well as the first to demonstrate links of such proteins with any disease.