The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen and the principal cause of acute and chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection with gastric Helicobacter results in an early infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes, and natural killer cells, followed by an influx of T cells and plasma cells. Although the critical components of this gastric infiltrate that lead to disease are unclear, the Helicobacter felis-infected mouse and other mouse models of Helicobacter- associated gastritis have demonstrated the critical nature of adaptive immunity in the development of gastric epithelial pathology. To further investigate the role of adaptive immunity in this disease, adoptive transfer models of disease have also been utilized. These models clearly demonstrate that it is the host CD4+ T lymphocyte response that is crucial for the development of Helicobacter-associated gastric epithelial changes. © 2005 Humana Press Inc.