Involvement of rabphilin-3A-like (RPH3AL), or Noc2, the potential effector of Ras-associated binding proteins Rab3A and Rab27A in the regulation of exocytotic processes in the endocrine pancreas has been demonstrated in experimental models. Noc2 expression together with other regulatory molecules of the exocytotic machinery in human tissues, however, has not been studied. We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of the key molecules of the exocytotic machinery, Noc2, Rab3A, Rab27A, and RIM2, together with the characteristic islet cell hormones, insulin and glucagon in normal and endocrine tumor tissues of human pancreas. Normal pancreatic islets were stained for all of these proteins and showed strong cytoplasmic localization. A similar pattern of strong cytoplasmic expression of these proteins was observed in the majority of endocrine tumors. By contrast, the exocrine portions of normal appearing pancreas completely lacked Rab27A staining and showed decreased expression of the proteins, Noc2, Rab3A, and RIM2. The staining pattern of Noc2 and Rab27A was similar to the staining pattern of glucagon-producing cells within the islets. The concomitant expression of Noc2 with these molecules suggests that Noc2 may serve as an effector for Rab3A and Rab27A and that it is involved in the regulation of exocytosis of the endocrine pancreas in humans.