Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) leads to considerable mortality and morbidity in premature infants. Although mechanical ventilation is lifesaving in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), it may contribute to lung injury and subsequently to BPD. Appropriate ventilatory strategies for reducing BPD include redefining the goals for "adequate gas exchange," using less mechanical ventilation support, refining the methods of mechanical ventilation, and using alternative techniques. Permissive hypercapnia, permissive hypoxemia, minimal peak pressures, rapid rates, early therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and rapid extubation may help reduce mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury and possibly reduce BPD. Newer techniques of ventilation such as volume-targeted ventilation are also promising. High frequency ventilation has not been proven to reduce BPD. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on management of infants with established BPD. Optimization of clinical care practices and ancillary therapies need to be combined with ventilatory strategies to prevent and manage BPD. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.