The quality of immune responses induced by DNA vaccination depends on the site of DNA administration, the expression, and the properties of the encoded antigen. In the present study, we demonstrate that intravenous hydrodynamic HIV-1 envelope DNA injection resulted in high levels of expression of HIV-1 envelope antigen in the liver. When compared to the administration of DNA by i.n., i.d., i.m., and i.splenic routes, hydrodynamic vaccination induced, upon DNA boosting, levels of HIV-1 envelope-specific antibodies 40-fold higher than those elicited by the other routes tested. Hydrodynamic vaccination with 1 μg DNA induced higher humoral responses than 100 μg DNA given intramuscularly in the prime-boost regimen. High levels of envelope-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were induced in genital tract secretions after two doses of DNA followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant HIV-1 gp120 protein. Furthermore, two doses of 100 μg DNA generated interferon-gamma production in ∼4.3 ± 1.7% of CD8+ splenocytes after in vitro stimulation with HIV-1 envelope peptides. These results demonstrate that DNA vaccines targeted to tissues with high proteosynthetic activity, such as the liver, results in enhanced immune responses. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.