Microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy can noninvasively enhance drug delivery to localized regions in the body. This technique can be beneficial in cancer therapy, but currently there are limitations to tracking the therapeutic effects. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the potential of fluorescent imaging for monitoring the temporal effects of microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy. Mice were implanted with 2LMP breast cancer cells. The animals underwent microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy in the presence of Cy5.5 fluorescent-labeled IgG antibody (large molecule) or Cy5.5 dye (small molecule) and microbubble contrast agents. Control animals were administered fluorescent molecules only. Animals were transiently imaged in vivo at 1, 10, 30, and 60 min post therapy using a small animal optical imaging system. Tumors were excised and analyzed ex vivo. Tumors were homogenized and emulsion imaged for Cy5.5 fluorescence. Monitoring in vivo results showed significant influx of dye into the tumor (p 0.05). However, after tumor emulsion, significantly higher dye concentration was detected in therapy group tumors for both small and large molecule groups in comparison to their control counterparts (p < 0.01). This paper explores a noninvasive optical imaging method for monitoring the effects of microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy in a cancer model. It provides temporal information following the process of increasing extravasation of molecules into target tumors. © 2013 IEEE.