Analysis of hematopoietic Src homology 2 (HSH2) protein expression in mouse immune cells demonstrated that it is expressed at low levels in resting B cells but not T cells or macrophages. However, HSH2 expression is up-regulated within 6-12 h in response to multiple stimuli that promote activation, differentiation, and survival of splenic B cells. HSH2 expression is increased in response to anti-CB40 mAb, the TLR ligands LPS and CpG DNA, and B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a key regulator of peripheral B cell survival and homeostasis. Stimulation of B cells with anti-CD40 mAb, LPS, CpG DNA, or BLyS has previously been shown to induce activation of NF-κ. In agreement with this finding, up-regulation of HSH2 expression in response to these stimuli is blocked by inhibitors of NF-κ activation and is potentiated by stimulation with PMA, suggesting that HSH2 expression is dependent on NF-κB activation. In contrast to CD40, BAFF receptor, TLR4, and TLR9 mediated signaling, stimulation of splenic B cells via the BCR was not observed to induce expression of HSH2 unless the cells had been stimulated previously through CD40. Finally, HSH2 expression is down-regulated in splenic B cells in response to stimulation with IL-21, which has been shown to induce apoptosis, even in the presence of anti-CD40 mAb, LPS, or CpG DNA. IL-21 stimulation also results in down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-xL and up-regulation of proapoptotic proteins like Bim. Therefore, HSH2 expression is coordinately up-regelated with known antiapoptotic molecules and directly correlates with B cell survival. Copyright © 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.