Food-derived exosome-like nanoparticles pass through the intestinal tract throughout our lives, but little is known about their impact or function. Here, as a proof of concept, we show that the cells targeted by grape exosome-like nanoparticles (GELNs) are intestinal stem cells whose responses underlie the GELN-mediated intestinal tissue remodeling and protection against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. This finding is further supported by the fact that coculturing of crypt or sorted Lgr5⁺ stem cells with GELNs markedly improved organoid formation. GELN lipids play a role in induction of Lgr5⁺ stem cells, and the liposome-like nanoparticles (LLNs) assembled with lipids from GELNs are required for in vivo targeting of intestinal stem cells. Blocking β-catenin-mediated signaling pathways of GELN recipient cells attenuates the production of Lgr5⁺ stem cells. Thus, GELNs not only modulate intestinal tissue renewal processes, but can participate in the remodeling of it in response to pathological triggers.