B cells are generated throughout life in humans.

Academic Article


  • This analysis of B cell development as a function of age reveals a relatively widespread distribution of progenitor B (pro-B), pre-B, and B cells in fetal tissues, and thus supports the idea of a multifocal origin of B lineage cells during embryonic development. From mid-gestation onward, the bone marrow is the major site of B cell generation in humans. A relatively constant ratio of bone marrow precursors to B cells of immature phenotype (CD24highCD10+CD20lowIgD-) is maintained from mid-gestation through the eighth decade of life. The persistence of recombinase gene activity in pro-B cells further attests the sustained production of B cells in bone marrow. Interestingly, a subpopulation of B cells with mature phenotype (CD24lowCD10-CD20highIgD+) accumulates in the bone marrow during childhood, and this becomes the predominant B cell subpopulation in adult bone marrow. This mature population of bone marrow B cells may represent a subpopulation of recirculating B cells that have undergone selection in the periphery.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • Adult, Aging, B-Lymphocytes, Base Sequence, Biomarkers, Bone Marrow, Bone Marrow Cells, CD5 Antigens, Cell Lineage, Child, Clonal Deletion, DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase, DNA Nucleotidyltransferases, Gestational Age, Hematopoiesis, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Hematopoietic System, Humans, Immunophenotyping, Molecular Sequence Data, Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell, VDJ Recombinases, Viscera
  • Pubmed Id

  • 8517568
  • Author List

  • Nuñez C; Nishimoto N; Gartland GL; Billips LG; Burrows PD; Kubagawa H; Cooper MD
  • Start Page

  • 866
  • End Page

  • 872
  • Volume

  • 156
  • Issue

  • 2