Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), and pneumolysin (Ply) are common to virtually all Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. They are immunogenic and protective against pneumococcal challenge in animals and are the major candidates for a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine for humans. However, little is known of the natural development of antibodies to these proteins in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the natural development of antibodies to PspA, PsaA, and Ply in relation to pneumococcal infection and carriage in young children. Serum antibodies to these proteins were measured by EIA in children at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and in their mothers. All age groups were capable of producing antibodies to the 3 proteins. The antibody concentrations increased with age and were strongly associated with pneumococcal exposure, whether by carriage or infection (acute otitis media).