Understanding the requirements for protection against pneumococcal carriage and pneumonia will greatly benefit efforts in controlling these diseases. Recently, it has been shown that genetic polymorphisms can result in diminished expression of CCL5, which results in increased susceptibility to and progression of infectious diseases. We show that CCL5, together with Th cytokine mRNA expression, is temporally up-regulated during pneumococcal carriage. To determine the contribution of CCL5 to pneumococcal surface antigen A-specific humoral and cellular pneumococcal immunity, mice were treated with anti-CCL5 or control Abs before and during Streptococcus pneumoniae strain EF3030-challenge for the initiation of carriage. CCL5 blockade resulted in a decrease of CD4 + and CD8+ T cells as well as CD11b+ cells in the spleen, cervical lymph node, lung, and nasopharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue during the recognition phase of the pneumococcal adaptive immune response. CCL5 blockade significantly reduced the Ag-specific IgG2a and IgG1 Abs in serum and IgA Ab levels in nasal washes. These decreases also corresponded to reductions in Ag-specific T cell (mucosal and systemic) responses. CCL5 inhibition resulted in decreasing the quantity of IL-4- and IFN-γ- secreting CD4+ T cells and increasing the number of Ag-specific IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells; these changes combined also corresponded with the transition from pneumococcal carriage to lethal pneumonia. These data suggest that CCL5 is an essential factor for the induction and maintenance of protective pneumococcal immunity. Copyright © 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.