Background: Endothelium-expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is considered critical for the development of cerebral malaria (CM). Results: ICAM-1 expression on leukocytes alone was sufficient for the development of experimental CM. Conclusion: Endothelial expression of ICAM-1 is not required for development of CM. Significance: Vascular occlusion inCMrequires ICAM-1 expression on leukocytes but not endothelial cells. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.