Sensitization to fungi, such as the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, is increasingly becoming linked with asthma severity. We have previously shown that lung responses generated via the β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 are required for lung defense during acute, invasive A. fumigatus infection. Unexpectedly, in an allergic model of chronic lung exposure to live A. fumigatus conidia, β-glucan recognition via Dectin-1 led to the induction of multiple proallergic (Muc5ac, Clca3, CCL17, CCL22, and IL-33) and proinflammatory (IL-1β and CXCL1) mediators that compromised lung function. Attenuated proallergic and proinflammatory responses in the absence of Dectin-1 were not associated with changes in Ido (IDO), Il12p35/Ebi3 (IL-35), IL-10, or TGF-β levels. Assessment of Th responses demonstrated that purified lung CD4 + T cells produced IL-4, IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-17A, but not IL-22, in a Dectin-1-dependent manner. In contrast, we observed robust, Dectin-1-dependent IL-22 production by unfractionated lung digest cells. Intriguingly, the absence of IL-22 alone mimicked the attenuated proallergic and proinflammatory responses observed in the absence of Dectin-1, suggesting that Dectin-1-mediated IL-22 production potentiated responses that led to decrements in lung function. To this end, neutralization of IL-22 improved lung function in normal mice. Collectively, these results indicate that the β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 contributes to lung inflammation and immunopathology associated with persistent fungal exposure via the production of IL-22. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.