© 2014 American Academy of Neurology. Objective: To assess the relationships among ABO group, factor VIII (FVIII), and incident cognitive impairment in a large, prospective cohort study of black and white adults in the United States using a nested case-control design. Methods: Incident cognitive impairment was defined using cognitive domain tests over a mean follow-up of 3.4 years. ABO blood group was measured by genotyping in a nested case-control sample of 495 cases with cognitive impairment and 587 controls. Results: Those with blood group AB and those with higher FVIII had an increased risk of cognitive impairment, adjusting for age, race, region, and sex (respective odds ratios 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.90; and 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.38 for 40 IU/dL higher FVIII). Mean FVIII was higher in those with blood type AB (142 IU/dL; 95% CI 119-165) compared with O (104 IU/dL; 95% CI 101-107), and FVIII mediated 18% of the association between AB group and incident cognitive impairment (95% CI for mediation 230% to 68%). Conclusions: Blood group AB and higher FVIII were associated with increased incidence of cognitive impairment in this prospective study. The association of blood group AB with incident cognitive impairment was not significantly mediated by FVIII levels.