© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Background Over 4% of patients undergoing colorectal surgery develop postoperative urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods Using 2005 to 2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data for 47,781 patients, we examined independent risk factors and complications associated with UTI using multivariate logistic regression. Results Independent predictors of UTI included female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.705, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.508 to 1.928), open procedure (OR 1.419, 95% CI 1.240 to 1.624), rectal procedure (OR 1.267, 95% CI 1.105 to 1.453), age greater than 65 years (OR 1.322, 95% CI 1.151 to 1.519), nonindependent functional status (OR 1.609, 95% CI 1.299 to 1.993), steroid use (OR 1.524, 95% CI 1.116 to 2.080), higher anesthesia class, and longer operative time. Patients with UTI had longer hospital stays (7 vs 12 days), higher reoperation rates (11.9% vs 5.1%), and higher 30-day mortality (3.3% vs 1.7%). Postoperative UTI correlated with other complications, including sepsis, surgical site infections, and pulmonary embolism (P <.001). Conclusions Postoperative UTI in colorectal surgery patients correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients who contract postoperative UTI may be more likely to develop multiple complications.