The present experiment examined whether neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) respond to intestinal infusions of long-chain fatty acids. Single-unit recordings were made of neurons located in and adjacent to the PVN during jejunal administration of linoleic acid. Jejunal administration of linoleic acid increased single-unit activity of neurons located in the PVN but did not affect activity of neurons located in adjacent tissue outside the PVN. The largest increases in neuronal activity were observed in the anterior PVN (0.9-1.3 mm posterior to bregma) compared with the posterior PVN (1.8-2.1 mm posterior to bregma). Jejunal administration of saline failed to affect activity of neurons located either inside or outside the PVN. When the same neurons were subsequently tested for their response to intravenous administration of 2 microg/kg of CCK-8, excitatory responses were more frequently observed than inhibitory responses, but both types of responses were observed regardless of whether neurons were located inside or outside the PVN. In addition, there was no strong correlation between the magnitude of the neuronal response evoked by jejunal administration of linoleic acid compared with intravenous CCK-8. These data suggest that neurons located in the anterior PVN may play a role in the mediation of suppression of food intake produced by intestinal administration of lipids.