Little is known regarding satiety effects of systemically administered cholecystokinin (CCK-8) in propensity or resistance to dietary-induced obesity (DIO), and of its effect under conditions of melanocortin-3/4R blockade. We found that CCK-8 exerted greater satiety effects in DIO-prone but not DIO-resistant rats, and this occurred only when the rats were placed on a high-fat (HF) diet, when DIO-prone rats failed to compensate for the greater energy density of the diet. CCK-8 also suppressed intake stimulated by melanocortin-3/4R antagonist, SHU9119, but only after 24h of increased feeding. This suggests that under both of these conditions, responsiveness to CCK's satiety effect is not so much affected by a HF diet or significant increases in body weight per se, but by a failure to rapidly limit food intake to that needed only for metabolic need. Identification of an early feeding mediator that is most strongly activated by a HF diet or by an acute challenge to energy homeostasis should provide an ideal anti-obesity target adjunct to CCK-8. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.