Primary bone cancers are extremely uncommon, comprise many different types with wide clinical heterogeneity, and are often curable when treated properly. There are many different kinds of primary bone cancers, and the names are principally based on histologic origin. For certain sarcomas, the cell type of origin has not yet been specifically determined. The three most common primary bone sarcomas are osteosarcoma (35%), chondrosarcoma (30%), and the Ewing's family of tumors (16%). Today, approximately three quarters of all newly diagnosed patients with osteosarcoma are cured. Of adult patients with osteosarcoma, nearly 95% can be treated successfully with limb-salvage approaches rather than amputation. Similar cure rates are associated with the Ewing's family of tumors, and in both osteosarcoma and Ewing's, cure is still achievable, even when lung metastasis occurs. © Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.