Objective: To assess the prognostic significance of molecular biomarkers, particularly c-erbB-2 and p53, through study of prospective clinical data and archival breast cancer tissues for women accrued to the Alabama Breast Cancer Project. Summary Background Data: Defining molecular abnormalities in breast cancer is an important strategy for early detection, assessment of prognosis, and treatment selection. Evidence is strong that selective biomarkers, including c-erbB-2 and p53, have prognostic significance in breast cancer. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic significance of coexpression of biomarkers. Methods: Study patients were those accrued to the Alabama Breast Cancer Project (1975-1978) who had archival breast cancer tissues available for analysis. Criteria for entrance into the Alabama Breast Cancer Project were T1-3 breast cancer with M0 status. Age, nodal status, and histologic grade were also documented. Patients were randomized to radical versus modified radical mastectomy, and node-positive patients were also randomized to adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil [CMF]) versus melphalan. Archival breast cancer tissues were studied for c-erbB-2, TGF-α, p53, cathepsin D, bcl-2, and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression using immunohistochemistry. Survival curves were developed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analysis was performed using the log-rank test, multivariate analysis using a rank regression model. Results: Three hundred eleven patients were accrued to the Alabama Breast Cancer Project, and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues for 90 patients were available for immunohistochemical analysis of molecular biomarkers. Univariate analysis showed nodal status, c-erbB-2 expression, and p53 expression to have prognostic significance. Coexpression of c-erbB-2 and p53 was also found to have prognostic significance by the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis showed T stage, nodal status, c-erbB-2 expression, and p53 expression to have independent prognostic significance. Conclusions: These data suggest that c-erbB-2 and p53 expression in breast cancer have prognostic significance. After median follow-up of 16 years, coexpression of c-erbB-2 and p53 may have more prognostic significance than traditional prognostic factors such as T stage and nodal status. Prospective study of large numbers of patients with breast cancer is encouraged to validate these findings.