Background. A recent study suggested that administration of androstenediol (Adiol) after trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) improves hepatic functions; however, the mechanism responsible for the salutary effect of Adiol remains unknown. Although studies indicate similarities and association between the anti-inflammatory properties of Adiol and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), whether the salutary effects of Adiol are mediated via upregulation of PPARγ remains unclear. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy and approximately 90 minutes of hemorrhagic shock (40 mm Hg), followed by resuscitation with 4 times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate. Adiol (1 mg per kilogram of body weight, iv) was administered at the end of resuscitation. An additional group of rats were treated with PPARγ antagonist (GW9662, 1 mg/kg ip) along with Adiol and the rats were sacrificed 5 hours thereafter. Results. Hepatic functions were markedly depressed and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein and endothelin-1 were markedly increased after T-H. DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B and AP-1, and gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 in the liver also increased significantly. These parameters were attenuated by Adiol treatment. These effects were accompanied an increased DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in T-H-Adiol-treated rats. Treatment of rats with GW9662 prevented the salutary effects of Adiol after T-H. Conclusions. Since blockade of PPARγ prevented the salutary effects of Adiol on hepatic functions and proinflammatory factors, this finding suggests that Adiol mediated its salutary effects after T-H via the PPARγ-related pathways. © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.