Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize not only microbial products, but also danger signals released from damaged tissues. Although we have previously shown that TLR4 is upregulated following trauma hemorrhage, the exact role of TLR4 in the posttraumatic immune response is unclear. To study this, C3H/HeOuJ (functional TLR4) or C3H/HeJ (TLR4 mutant) mice were subjected to laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation with 4× the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate. Sham operated mice underwent same surgical procedure, but neither hemorrhage nor resuscitation was performed. Four hours after resuscitation, the mice were sacrificed, plasma and lungs were collected and Kupffer cells were isolated. Plasma chemokine (MCP-1 and KC) levels, Kupffer cell chemokine production, and lung chemokine content were determined. Lung neutrophil infiltration was assessed by tissue content of myeloperoxidase. The chemokine levels in plasma, Kupffer cell supernatants and lung tissue were elevated in C3H/HeOuJ mice subjected to trauma hemorrhage compared to shams. No such changes were observed in C3H/HeJ mice undergoing trauma hemorrhage. Mice with functional TLR4 expression showed elevated lung neutrophil infiltration following trauma hemorrhage, which was not observed in TLR4 mutant mice. These findings suggest that functional TLR4 signaling is critical in mediating the inflammatory response following trauma hemorrhage. Thus, modulation of the TLR4 after injury may serve as a future therapeutic target in trauma patients. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.