Flutamide protects against trauma-hemorrhage-induced liver injury via attenuation of the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apopotosis

Academic Article


  • Although studies have shown that administration of testosterone receptor antagonist, flutamide, following trauma-hemorrhage, improves hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune functions, the precise cellular/ molecular mechanisms responsible for producing these salutary effects remain largely unknown. To study this, male C3H/HeN mice were subjected to a midline laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (35 ± 5 mmHg for ∼90 min), followed by resuscitation with Ringer lactate. Flutamide (25 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered subcutaneously at the onset of resuscitation, and animals were killed 2 h thereafter. Hepatic injury was assessed by plasma α-glutathione S-transferase concentration, liver myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrotyrosine formation. Hepatic malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals (lipid peroxidation indicators), cellular DNA fragmentation, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were also evaluated. Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and chemokines (keratinocyte-derived chemokine and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) levels were determined by cytometric bead array. The results indicate that flutamide administration after trauma-hemorrhage reduced liver injury, which was associated with decreased levels of α-glutathione S-transferase, myeloperoxidase activity, nitrotyrosine formation, lipid peroxidation, and cytokines/chemokines (systemic, liver tissue, and intracellular cytokines/chemokines). Cellular apoptosis, hepatocyte hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were also decreased under such conditions. Thus administration of flutamide following trauma-hemorrhage protects against liver injury via reduced inflammation, cellular oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kan WH; Hsieh CH; Schwacha MG; Choudhry MA; Raju R; Bland KI; Chaudry IH
  • Start Page

  • 595
  • End Page

  • 602
  • Volume

  • 105
  • Issue

  • 2