The ERRor of our ways: Estrogen-related receptors are about energy, not hormones, and are potential new targets for trauma and shock

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Copyright © 2015 by the Shock Society. As with sharks and horseshoe crabs, some designs of nature need only minor evolutionary adjustments during the millennia to remain superbly adapted. Such is the case at the molecular level for the nuclear receptors (NRs), which seem to have originated concomitantly with the earliest metazoan lineage of animals. A wide array of NRs persists today throughout all animal phyla with many different functions, yet they share a highly conserved protein structure, a testament to their having evolved through numerous gene duplications. Of particular interest for this readership are the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), which have significant supportive roles in energy creation and regulation, mitochondrial function and biogenesis, development, tissue repair, hypoxia, and cancer. Thus, placed at the nexus of energetics and homeostasis, ERR (in association with the coregulatory molecules peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and -β) can facilitate repair from injury and adaptations to stressful environments. Whereas it is curious that ERRs and some other NRs exist as "orphans" by virtue of having no known cognate ligand, increasing interest in the estrogen receptor has led to the development of synthetic ligands and screening for naturally occurring molecules, either capable of modulating ERR activity. Thus, what is needed now is a nomenclature update for the ERR to focus the mind on energetics and metabolism, the most compromised and crucial systems after trauma and shock.
  • Published In

  • Shock  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Hubbard WJ; Bland KI; Chaudry IH
  • Start Page

  • 3
  • End Page

  • 15
  • Volume

  • 44
  • Issue

  • 1